dentify whether the market supply curve will shift right or left or will stay the same for the following:
a. Firms in an industry are required to pay a fine for their emissions of carbon dioxide.
b. Companies are sued for polluting the water in a river.
c. Power plants in a specific city are not required to address the impact of their emissions on the quality of air.
d. Companies that use fracking to remove oil and gas from rock are required to clean up the damage.
For each of your answers to the above questions, will equilibrium price rise or fall or stay the same?